The device uses the latest military technology to measure the wing-flapping speed of individual insects, according to one of the researchers involved in the government project.
It is thought the equipment could be used to track migrating mosquitos and warn people at risk from diseases like malaria and zika.
It follows the news last year that China was making a powerful radar that can detect stealth aircraft.
“Identifying and tracking individual, mosquito-sized targets is no longer science fiction,” a researcher who wished to remain anonymous told the South China Morning Post. “We are actually quite close to bringing this technology out of the laboratory and using it to save lives.”
The scientist said to be leading the project, Teng Long, from the Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), has co-authored several research papers on the subject.
In 2016 he proposed “a novel method to acquire 3D flight trajectory of individual insect”.
Last year his paper “Micro-Doppler measurement of insect wing-beat frequencies with W-band coherent radar” suggested radar could be used for identification of species.
His team was reportedly given more than 82 million yuan (£9.2 million) by the government to build a full-sized mosquito detection radar for field testing.
A report by the International Institute of Strategic Studies recently warned that China was challenging the military supremacy of the West by expanding its military capabilities, with a combat stealth aircraft due to enter service in 2020